When the binding has more than just damage along the spine, a rebind is called for. For this treatment the textblock is generally in good condition, although paper repair is not uncommon and occasionally a loose signature must be resewn. The book is disbound, i.e. the textblock is removed from its original binding. The original cover is repaired and then replaced onto the textblock. If the original is too damaged, a new cover is made. Often a combination is used, reusing as much of the original as possible and then substituting new materials to make the cover whole again. Materials used can include bookcloth, leather, Japanese paper and/or cotton muslin. As in all repairs, as much of the original as possible is saved.
The cloth on this volume was cracked and damaged along the spine. The covers were at one time held on with adhesive tape, although the tape was no longer present, just the staining.
Comstock, J. L. (John Lee), 1789-1858
An introduction to the study of botany; in which the science is illustrated by examples of native and exotic plants...Designed for the use of schools and private students.
New York, Robinson, Pratt, & co. 
QK47 .C73 1832
Description: viii, -260 p. illus. 20 cm.
There was also tape on the inside of the covers and on the first leaves (the endsheets were missing). The adhesive from the tape has left stains on the paper.
The new cloth cover, with the original paper label adhered to the spine.
New endsheets were added and the staining of the tape was minimized. Tape stains are sometimes impossible to remove completely.
The covers on this book were held on with a cloth adhesive tape. The marbled paper was very scuffed and faded.
Cummings, J. A. (Jacob Abbot), 1772-1820
An introduction to ancient and modern geography, on the plan of Goldsmith and Guy, comprising rules for projecting maps; with an atlas
Boston : Published and sold by Cummings and Hilliard, No. 1, Cornhill, Cambridge .... Hilliard & Metcalf, 1815.
Edition 3d ed.
G125 .C965 1815
Description: xx, 322,  p. II pl., diagrs. 17 cm. and atlas.
The new binding was done in leather and marbled paper, which would be very similar to what the original binding looked like.
The original endsheets were preserved with the autograph and doodles.
Although the covers are not detached, they are in a very fragile condition. The thread sticking out from the front joint indicates the sewing is broken in the first few signatures.
Morse, Jedidiah, 1761-1826
Geography made easy: being an abridgement of the American universal geography
Boston: Published by Thomas & Andrews. Sold at their bookstore, no. 45, Newbury-street, and by West and Richardson, no. 75, Cornhill; by S. Wood and sons, New-York, M. Carey, Philadelphia; and by the principal booksellers in the United States... Ezra Lincoln, printer. Sept. 1818
Edition 19th ed., and 7th of this new abridgement.
G125 .M85 1818
Description: viii, -364 p. : 2 fold. maps (incl. front.) ; 17 cm.
After the covers were removed and the sewing fixed, the cover was reassembled using Japanese papers.
A new endsheet was added in the front. The repair to the title page can also be seen in the upper left-hand corner.
Even though the back endsheets were in poor condition, they were sound enough to reuse and the writing on the endsheet was preserved.
Ensign, S. Laura
Outlines in ancient, mediaeval, and modern history : for the use of teachers and pupils
Chicago, A. Flanagan, c1887.
Edition 3rd ed.
D21 .E575 1887
Description: 261 p. : maps ; 20 cm.
The original cloth spine was reinforced with Japanese paper to make it strong again.
The covers were reattached using a thin, but strong, Japanese paper inserted underneath the endsheet.