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The MSU Libraries began as a single reading room on the third floor of College Hall, the first classroom building at the Michigan Agricultural College. In the school’s early years, students and faculty spent most of the day in the classroom and the fields, so the library was open only a few hours in the early evening. Student assistants were the very first library employees.
The first appointed librarian was Professor George T. Fairchild, an instructor in English literature who added “acting librarian” to his duties in 1872. At the same time, the library was moved to larger quarters on the first floor of College Hall and began to be used more heavily. Professor E.J. MacEwan took over in 1880, and the library added 50 new subscriptions to journals in agriculture, botany, entomology, chemistry, engineering and literature. In 1881, the library moved to Linton Hall.
By 1883, MAC had grown to 300 students. Mary J.C. Merrell, the first full-time librarian, estimated that the library, now open 50 hours a week, was visited daily by at least one-third of the student body. The first branch library was organized in 1888 when the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station was established on campus. Merrell was succeeded by Mary Mouat Abbot and Jane Skellie Sinclair, both of whom continued her efforts to build the collection.
In 1891, Linda E. Landon was appointed to manage a collection which had grown to 15,000 volumes and was available to students 14 hours a day. The Cutter classification, an early method for shelving books by discipline, was implemented to allow the expanding collection to be browsed more easily. Over the next 25 years, Landon would oversee steady increases in the library’s holdings which filled its Linton Hall rooms to the bursting point.
By 1916, the collection had more than doubled and stack space had to be created by excavating underneath Linton Hall. A new building devoted to the library was clearly needed, and in May 1919, the governor of Michigan signed a bill appropriating $300,000 for that purpose. Six years would pass before the new building was ready to occupy, but library services continued unabated from College Hall despite the cramped quarters.
A second full-time librarian was hired in 1920, enabling the library to dramatically expand its public presence and advance MAC’s mission of service to the people of Michigan. A “package library” system was developed: small focused book collections on topics of current interest, which were advertised to county extension agents, boys’ and girls’ clubs, and high school teachers throughout the state. Ninety-five package libraries were loaned in the first year, and the popularity of the service increased throughout the decade. The package library initiative would be only the first of many library programs and services offered to the entire state.
In September 1925 the new library building opened its doors, and students flocked to the new location. “It is certainly a beautiful building, and we are proud of it,” Linda Landon wrote with appreciation in her annual report. “Students and faculty alike enjoy using the library for reading and study.” With ample room for collections to support new programs of study, and additional librarians to work with students and faculty, the MAC Library was ready to start a new chapter in its history.
Jackson Towne was appointed head librarian in 1932, when Linda Landon retired after 41 years of service. Landon Hall, a women’s dormitory built in 1947, was named in her honor.
By the 1930s, academic libraries in the U.S. had developed to the point where quantitative measures and comparisons between institutions were becoming useful forms of evaluation. In 1933, for example, the MAC library was ranked seventh in the nation for its holdings in botany and horticulture, in the company of such highly specialized institutions as the New York Botanical Garden and the Massachusetts Horticultural Society.
Jackson Towne’s tenure coincided roughly with the era of MSU’s transition from a state agricultural college to a nationally-recognized research university. After World War II, MSU’s programs expanded to embrace the full range of arts and humanities, social sciences, and international studies, in addition to the agricultural, scientific and applied fields that were its original emphasis. By 1949, MSU had established doctoral programs in 30 fields and was enrolling nearly 19,000 students. And in only 25 years, the library had outgrown its first building.
In 1950, planning began for a research library on the north bank of the Red Cedar. The new building, overlooking the Beal Garden, would seat 3,400 students and house a collection of one million volumes, while the old building would become the MSU Museum. The library had reached 450,000 volumes and, with MSU’s post-war expansion, was now adding 50,000 volumes a year. The new building was completed in 1955. The next year, MSU attained membership in the highly selective Association of Research Libraries, an organization representing the most important research collections in North America.
Richard E. Chapin was appointed director of libraries in 1959. Space issues continued to have a high priority; an east wing was added to the Main Library in 1967, tripling the existing shelf space. The collection had reached one million volumes while the addition was being built. It would reach two million volumes in 1973, three million in 1987, and four million in 1995.
In the 1970s, libraries began transforming their collections and operations to take advantage of newly developing technology. Card catalogs were automated; films and software joined books on the shelves; telecommunications allowed libraries to share information quickly and easily. In 1989, the MSU Libraries’ catalog went online, allowing users to perform searches in a few seconds that took hours with the card catalog.
Since the early 1990s, the astonishing growth of the Internet has allowed libraries to dramatically expand the range of services and materials they can provide to patrons, and the MSU Libraries have taken full advantage of these opportunities.
The Libraries’ online catalog and website have evolved into a portal through which our users can reach literally millions of online resources, from anywhere in the world they may be working or studying. More than 90% of our 39,000 journal subscriptions are available online, along with extensive ebook holdings, sound and image collections, statistical sets and geo-spatial resources. For on-campus users, the Libraries provide more than 500 public workstations and full wireless accessibility.
Our mission to serve the people of Michigan continues in the digital age. MeLCat, the statewide catalog and resource-sharing system, began in 2000 as a pilot project headed by the MSU Libraries, and we loan more than 30,000 items a year to Michigan residents through this program. The Libraries have also devoted significant effort to digitizing our rare materials so they may be used by scholars and students everywhere. Since 1999, the Libraries have been awarded more than $5.5 million from the National Science Foundation, the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Library of Congress, and other agencies to move this work forward.
The MSU Libraries are a leader in the world of research libraries, providing a comprehensive collection of full-text electronic resources in every discipline, online services that speed materials to scholars, and facilities to create the best possible learning environment for every student.
Significant Milestones for the MSU Libraries
- 1883 - First librarian appointed
- 1888 - Collection reaches 10,000 volumes
- 1925 - First library building completed
- 1934 - Collection reaches 100,000 volumes
- 1955 - Library moves to present location
- 1963 - Collection reaches 1,000,000 volumes
- 1967 - East wing added to main library
- 1973 - Collection reaches 2,000,000 volumes
- 1979 - First automation system introduced
- 1987 - Collection reaches 3,000,000 volumes
- 1989 - Online catalog goes public
- 1995 - Collection reaches 4,000,000 volumes
- 1999 - Value of library endowments reaches $1,000,000
- 1999 - Library begins 24-hour operations
- 2007 - Value of library endowments reaches $5,000,000