Open Access Publishing
Open Access (OA) is a publication model based on free and unrestricted access to scholarly research outputs.
The traditional model of scholarly publication relies on commercial publishers to facilitate the process of selection, peer review, editing, and dissemination. Libraries, in turn, purchase and provide access to books and journals. By leveraging the ability of the Internet to freely share information, OA provides us with an alternative publishing model. However, the issue is complex and multi-faceted as the human resources and technical infrastructure required to support scholarly publishing must be accounted for.
An Open Access Publication as defined by the Bethesda Statement is one that meets the following two conditions:
- The author(s) and copyright holder(s) grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship, as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use.
- A complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in a suitable standard electronic format is deposited immediately upon initial publication in at least one online repository that is supported by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and long-term archiving (for the biomedical sciences, PubMed Central is such a repository).
Why publish open access?
- Increasing Visibility: Open access allows anyone to access and read academic work without paying for subscriptions or fees on a publisher’s website. This means researchers who work in universities without well-stocked libraries or researchers from lower-income countries are able to read and use these publications.
- Citation Rate: Some studies have shown that open access publications tend to receive more citations than subscription-based publications. This is known as the “Open Access citation effect”. Read more…
- Compliance with research funder policies: Many funding agencies now require some kind of public access to research publications resulting from their grants. In the United States, National Institutes of Health funded projects have a public access policy (see: NIH Public Access Policy). Public access is required after 12 months, so this is not technically “open access” but embargoed public access.
Why not to publish open access?
Journal reputation, review process, impact factors, and audience are also influential issues to consider when you decide where to submit your manuscript to publish. If you want to make your research open access and are not able to identify a suitable OA journal, remember that many traditional journals do allow an open access option for individual articles (see below) and other journals may not be open access but may be free after an embargo period or at least more reasonably priced. If you choose to publish in a journal without an open access option, there are other steps you can take to ensure your rights as an author to distribute your work, such as self-archiving.
How can I make my publications open access?
There are many factors to consider when choosing a publisher. Depending on your field, journal and book publishers may or may not provide open access choices. Make an educated choice when it comes to your publication venue and make considerations for OA publishing from the beginning of your research project (e.g., consider budgeting for OA fees). As you’ll find out, the costs to maintain a system of publication are not obliterated by OA; subsidizing of publication costs happen one way or another.
There are two main OA publishing options:
Publish in "Gold" OA journals
Publish in a journal that will make your article open.
Self-archive "Green" copies of your work
Self-archive your article to make it open.
The colors gold and green refer to the SHERPA RoMEO (Securing a Hybrid Environment for Research Preservation and Access Rights MEtadata for Open archiving) classification scheme for open access publishing and archiving options.
Gold: Publish in open access journals or journals with an open access option
OA journals or journals with an open access option provide a venue to publish your work that facilitates free and unfettered access immediately. There are multiple types of journals that allow open access:
1. Fully open access journals
- These journals are completely free and open with few to no restrictions
- There are no fees to individual authors
- Authors are usually allowed to self-archive their work
- The cost of the publishing the journal is subsidized by a university or professional organization
- Examples: Advances in Social Work, Digital Humanities Quarterly, Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
2. Author pays open access journals
- Authors pay a fee to the journal (anywhere from $90 to $3,000) to subsidize the cost of making the article immediately freely available
- Authors are usually allowed to self-archive their work
- Some publishers offer institutional memberships in exchange for discounted author fees, e.g., MSU authors get a discount on BioMed Central fees
- Some universities offer author fee funds where you can submit an application to have the library cover your OA author fees. MSU does not currently offer this service.
- Authors can write OA fees into their grant proposals
- Example: BioMed Central journals, PLoS journals, Taylor & Francis Open/Routledge Open journals
3. Author pays open access options in traditional journals
- Hybrid journals contain some articles that are open access and others that are available only to subscribers
- Authors are given the choice when they publish whether to pay a fee (anywhere from $90 to $3000) make their article immediately freely available
- Authors are usually allowed to self-archive their work
- Many of the largest academic publishers are allowing this option on all or most of their journals. Examples: Elsevier Open Access Option, Oxford Open, Sage Choice, Springer Open, Taylor & Francis Open Select
Article Processing Fees
As an MSU researcher, most of the time you will need to pay the fee for publishing your open access article yourself or from your grant. For the following publishers, the MSU Libraries has paid a membership that provides a discount for authors:
- BioMed Central. The MSU Libraries is a Supporter Member. This means that the MSU Libraries and the author will split the article processing charges. MSU also gets a 10% discount, so that, in the end, MSU authors pay 45% of the charges with BioMed Central.
Green: Self-archive Open Access copies of your work
If you choose to self-archive your research article, you will need to pay attention to your copyright and author agreement from the original place of publication. The SHERPA RoMEO website has analyzed and categorized journal self-archiving policies and has a journal look-up tool that you can use to help determine your options.
There are four levels of self-archiving rights that journals may offer:
Can archive both pre-print and post-print Can archive post-print
Can archive pre-print No archiving formally supported
- Post-print is the final draft post-refereeing
- Pre-print is the manuscript pre-refereeing
- Usually, in no cases can you self-archive the final, published version.
What repositories are available to me for self-archiving?
- You can self-archive your articles on your faculty or project website.
You can self-archive by submitting your article to a disciplinary repository. Examples of disciplinary repositories include:
- ArXiv is an archive for preprints that has predominantly been used by scientists in the fields of theoretical physics, mathematics, and computer science. Very recently, quantitative biologists/geneticists have also been adding their preprints. It is maintained by Cornell University.
- PubMed Central is a free archive of the biomedical literature containing articles that were contributed by publishers or by authors. The National Institutes of Health Public Access Policy mandates that investigators submit electronic versions of final accepted manuscripts from research that is publicly funded to PubMed Central within 12 months of publication.
- Social Science Research Network includes both abstracts and full text preprints of articles from the social sciences and the humanities, and is particularly strong in economics.
- Some universities have institutional repositories that host self-archived materials. MSU does not currently have a repository for self-archiving, but if you have materials that you believe are an important part of the scholarly record and are not published elsewhere you should contact your subject librarian to talk about all available options. If you co-author an article with someone whose university does an institutional repository, you can self-archive your work there.
Embargoed public access journals
- Some journals do not offer an immediate open access option to authors, but they do provide free access to all of their articles after an initial embargo period, usually of 1-2 years.
- Current journal issues still require a subscription to access
- Authors may or may not be able to self-archive their work
- While publishing in this type of journal may not provide all the benefits of publishing open access, this access should be considered by authors when choosing where to publish.
- Funding agencies like the National Institutes of Health do not require open access publishing, but only require access after a 12 month embargo.
- Examples: many societies publishing on HighWire, Learned Publishing
Open access scams
Author-pays OA is a perfectly legitimate model, but unfortunately scammers have figured out that offering vanity or fake author-pays journals is an easy way to make a quick buck. Author beware! Be sure to investigate your potential publication venues. Ask your subject librarian if you’re not sure about a particular journal, review the list of Open Access Journal Quality Indicators, and/or consult Beall’s List of predatory open access publishers.
How do the MSU Libraries support open access?
- Advising on publication options. Check out this tutorial, contact the Copyright Office, or have a chat with your subject librarian.
Building open access collections.
- The Digital and Multimedia Center digitizes and makes accessible special parts of the MSU Libraries collections that are in the public domain.
- Participation in the HathiTrust and GoogleBooks projects to digitize public domain works such as out-of-copyright books and government documents.
Adding open access materials to our collections.
- We add all publications listed in the Directory of Open Access Journals to our library catalog.
- Acquisition of original open access materials will be pursued based on subject-specific collection development policies. Talk to your subject librarian about adding your original open access materials to our collection.
Supporting projects in affordable publishing, open access publishers, repositories, and advocacy organizations.
- MSU is an institutional member of ArXiv, BioMed Central, Knowledge Unlatched, Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC), and SCOAP3.